G99 Compliance Studies for B / C / D Type Plants

G99 has been with us for a while now, and most people are fairly familiar with the compliance process for getting DNO approval for energisation with EON / ION and FON. We still find people are a little bit unsure about the different compliance studies needed, and how ‘hard’ they are. Type B studies (1MW […]

Harmonic Impedance Loci – Help or Hindrance?

I have a bit of an open question for those of you that do complex harmonic studies. Do you think that harmonic impedance loci provided by DNOs and TSOs are actually useful and beneficial, or are they more trouble than they are worth? Would a series of frequency dependent profiles for specific outage cases a […]

Dynamic and Stability Studies – What are they?

One of the more interesting studies to carry out during power system analysis are those associated with power system dynamics and studies. These are some of the more complicated studies that we carry out and are time based simulations to see how a system responds to a disturbance over a finite time period – usually […]

Arc Flash Studies – IEEE 1584 – Do they Make Sense in a UK / IEC Context?

Arc flash studies get a lot of engineers and managers very excited and opinionated; but once you get pass the initial discussions, they are often poorly understood. There is very much a tendency to over-simplify arc flash assessments, or to take the output data from a model and take it as an absolute result with […]

Protection Coordination Studies – Do I Need One?

The answer is yes! Protection studies, like fault studies, are a legal requirement in the UK, and are necessary to show that a fault will be cleared in an acceptable time that does not pose a risk to personnel or equipment. What is also forgotten is that it is often a requirement of a company insurers […]

G5.5 Harmonics – Making Life Easier or Harder?

G5.5 Harmonic studies are applicable to any plant that contains sources of harmonics, typically associated with Solar PV, Wind, Battery Storage and large industrial sites. The studies are primarily carried out to determine the level of harmonic emissions from a site and to identify any potential resonances and the need for mitigation strategies like harmonic […]

P28/2 – Voltage Fluctuation Studies

P28/2 or voltage fluctuation studies are applicable to a wide variety of plants and a key regulatory requirement of DNOs, to ensure that a private network does not adversely affect the public network by creating problems of voltage flicker, or problems for voltage regulation. The studies are primarily carried out for generation projects and battery […]

Fault / Short Circuit Studies

It may surprise you to know that Fault / Short Circuit studies are a legal requirement in the UK. Part of the confusion over the issues, is because this is not explicitly stated in primary legislation anywhere. It is however heavily implied in the Electrical Safety, Quality and Continuity Regulations (ESQCR) 2002 in clause 3 […]

Load Flow Studies

What is the purpose of a load flow study? Load flow studies are one of the most fundamental study types carried out as part of system analysis; but they are often ignored by companies as they are seen as a bit wooly and non-essential. However, they are actually very useful and tell the designer a […]